B-PrologImplementation of programming language Prolog
B-Prolog was first released in 1994. It runs on Windows, Linux and Mac OS-X (since versions 6.x).
- Interactive environment for the user to consult, list, compile, load, debug and run programs. The command editor in the environment facilitates recalling and editing old commands.
- Matching clauses in which the determinacy and input/output unifications are denoted explicitly. Matching clauses are compiled into more compact and faster code than standard-form clauses. The compiler and most of the libraries are written in matching clauses.
- Bidirectional Interface with C and Java allows to integrate B-Prolog applications with those developed in C, C++ and Java.
- Action rules — a construct for programming concurrency, implementing constraint propagators, and developing interactive graphical user interfaces. These were used to implement efficient constraint solvers over trees, Boolean, finite-domains, and sets.
- Constraint-based graphics library called CGLIB. It includes primitives for creating and manipulating graphical objects and a set of constraints that facilitates the specification of the layouts of objects.
- Support for tabling mechanism, used for applications like parsing, problem solving, theorem proving, model checking, and deductive databases.
Factorial:Example for versions B-Prolog 7.4 #3, gprolog 1.3.0, swipl 5.6.x
Almost identical to Poplog Prolog example, except for the syntax of compiling a file (doesn’t have a
- before file name). However, the results of execution depend on the implementation. SWI-Prolog handles large numbers just fine, while in GNU Prolog and B-Prolog 12! overflows the numeric data type, so all values after 11! are incorrect.
| ?- [fact].
compiling /home/nickolas/Desktop/progopedia/prolog/fact.pl for byte code…
/home/nickolas/Desktop/progopedia/prolog/fact.pl compiled, 3 lines read — 1372 bytes written, 5 ms
| ?- fact(16,X).
0! = 1
1! = 1
2! = 2
3! = 6
4! = 24
5! = 120
6! = 720
7! = 5040
8! = 40320
9! = 362880
10! = 3628800
11! = 39916800
12! = -57869312
13! = -215430144
14! = 205203456
15! = -143173632
16! = -143294464
X = -143294464 ?`
% fact.pl fact(X, F) :- ( X=0, F=1; Y is X-1, fact(Y, Z), F is X*Z), write(X), write('! = '), write(F), nl. % interactive [fact]. fact(16,X).
Fibonacci numbers:Example for versions B-Prolog 7.4 #3, gprolog 1.3.0, swipl 5.6.x
Once again, the example is almost identical to Poplog Prolog one, except for the syntax of compiling/consulting a file.
% fibonacci.pl :- dynamic(stored/1). memo(Goal) :- stored(Goal) -> true; Goal, assertz(stored(Goal)). fib(1,1) :- !, write('1, '). fib(2,1) :- !, write('1, '). fib(N,F) :- N1 is N-1, memo(fib(N1,F1)), N2 is N-2, memo(fib(N2,F2)), F is F1 + F2, write(F), write(', '). % interactive [fibonacci]. fib(16,X), write('...'), nl.
Hello, World!:Example for versions B-Prolog 7.4 #3, Poplog 15.5 (Prolog), gprolog 1.3.0, swipl 5.6.x
This example doesn’t need any facts or rules to be evaluated. The query is executed in interactive mode, and results in the following output:
First line is the actual output of
write predicate, and second line is the result of query evaluation.
Note that replacing single-quotes with double-quotes makes Prolog output the string as an array of ASCII-codes of individual characters:
| ?- write("Hello, World!").
write('Hello, World!'), nl.
Quadratic equation:Example for versions B-Prolog 7.4, gprolog 1.3.0, swipl 5.6.x
This is an ISO Prolog example, using standard read/1 predicate for reading input. Note that when using read/1, you have to put full stop . after each value you input.
q :- write('A = '), read(A), ( A = 0, write('Not a quadratic equation'); write('B = '), read(B), write('C = '), read(C), D is B*B-4*A*C, ( D = 0, write('x = '), X is -B/2/A, write(X); D > 0, write('x1 = '), X1 is (-B+sqrt(D))/2/A, write(X1), nl, write('x2 = '), X2 is (-B-sqrt(D))/2/A, write(X2); R is -B/2/A, I is abs(sqrt(-D)/2/A), write('x1 = ('), write(R), write(', '), write(I), write(')'), nl, write('x1 = ('), write(R), write(', -'), write(I), write(')') ) ).