# QBasic 1.1

Version of implementation QBasic of programming language BasicLast version of QBasic.

## Examples:

### Factorial - Basic (32):

This example uses recursive factorial definition.

The default data type for calculations is floating point, so program output looks like this:

0! = 1

1! = 1

2! = 2

3! = 6

4! = 24

5! = 120

6! = 720

7! = 5040

8! = 40320

9! = 362880

10! = 3628800

11! = 3.99168Е+07

12! = 4.790016Е+08

13! = 6.227021Е+09

14! = 8.717829Е+10

15! = 1.307674Е+12

16! = 2.092279Е+13

```
DECLARE FUNCTION factorial (n)
FOR i = 0 TO 16:
PRINT STR$(i) + "! =" + STR$(factorial(i))
NEXT i
END
FUNCTION factorial (n)
IF n = 0 THEN
factorial = 1
ELSE
factorial = n * factorial(n - 1)
END IF
END FUNCTION
```

### Fibonacci numbers - Basic (33):

Numbers which have already been calculated are stored in array F and are retrieved from it to calculate the next ones. To get program output in required format, the numbers in the array are concatenated to form one string with required delimiters. `STR$`

function converts a number to a string.

```
DIM F(16)
F(1) = 1
F(2) = 1
FOR i = 3 TO 16:
F(i) = F(i - 1) + F(i - 2)
NEXT i
DIM S AS STRING
S = ""
FOR i = 1 TO 16:
S = S + STR$(F(i)) + ", "
NEXT i
S = S + "..."
PRINT S
```

### Fibonacci numbers - Basic (34):

This example uses recursive definition of Fibonacci numbers. Each call of `PRINT`

function prints the arguments to a separate line and adds a space before and after printed number, so program output looks like this:

1 ,

1 ,

2 ,

3 ,

5 ,

8 ,

13 ,

21 ,

34 ,

55 ,

89 ,

144 ,

233 ,

377 ,

610 ,

987 ,

…

```
DECLARE FUNCTION fibonacci (n)
FOR i = 1 TO 16:
PRINT fibonacci(i); ", "
NEXT i
PRINT "..."
FUNCTION fibonacci (n)
IF (n <= 2) THEN
fibonacci = 1
ELSE
fibonacci = fibonacci(n - 1) + fibonacci(n - 2)
END IF
END FUNCTION
```

### Fibonacci numbers - Basic (35):

Fibonacci numbers are calculated using Binet’s formula. The resulting numbers can differ from actual ones slightly due to calculation imprecision; to remove this effect, we use function `INT`

which truncates fractional part of the number.

```
DECLARE FUNCTION FIBONACCI (n)
DIM S AS STRING
S = ""
FOR i = 1 TO 16:
S = S + STR$(INT(FIBONACCI(i) + .1)) + ","
NEXT i
S = S + "..."
PRINT S
FUNCTION FIBONACCI (n)
p1 = ((1 + SQR(5)) * .5) ^ n
p2 = ((1 - SQR(5)) * .5) ^ n
FIBONACCI = (p1 - p2) / SQR(5)
END FUNCTION
```

### Factorial - Basic (224):

This example uses iterative factorial definition. Arithmetic overflow happens when trying to calculate 13!, but different implementations handle it in different ways: QBasic reports an exception, while QuickBasic just proceeds printing negative values.

```
DIM f AS LONG
f = 1
PRINT " 0 ! ="; f
FOR i = 1 TO 16:
f = f * i:
PRINT i; "! ="; f
NEXT i
END
```

### Hello, World! - Basic (31):

```
PRINT "Hello, World!"
```

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